There aren’t many record labels that are founded in a college dorm. However, that’s where the Elektra Records story began in 1950. Jac Holman and  Paul Rickol were students at the prestigious and exclusive St. John’s College, in Santa Fe. They decided to form a record label, and agreed to invest $300 each into their new business venture. A year later Elektra Records was ready to release its album.

This was New Songs, a classical album featuring Georgianna Bannister and John Gruen. It was released as a limited edition in March 1951, but sold only a few copies. For Jac Holman and  Paul Rickol it was an inauspicious start to the Elektra Records story.

Despite this setback, Elektra Records would thrive during the fifties and early sixties. Elektra Records was at the forefront of the folk revival. They signed Ed McCurdy, Oscar Brand, Judy Collins, Phil Ochs and Tom Paxton. These artists brought commercial success and critical acclaim the way of Elektra Records. However, by 1964, Elektra Records was ready to diversify.

Jac Holman had spotted a gap in the classical music market. There was room he realised, for a classical budget label, so launched Nonesuch Records. It was a huge success. So much so, that other labels launched similar ventures. However, Nonesuch Records was the market leader. Buoyed by this success, Elektra Records decided to enter the pop music market.

Elektra Records entered into a joint venture with Survey Music, and founded Bounty Records. It wasn’t a particularly successful venture, and ultimately floundered and folded. The only thing Elektra Records  gained from Bounty Records, was The Paul Butterfield Band, which they fell heir to. This would play an important part in Elektra Records future.

With the new wave of psychedelic rock unfolding before their eyes, Elektra Records decided to sign some of the genre’s most promising acts. Soon, San Francisco’s based The Doors had signed to Elektra Records. Another new label was a band from Los Angeles, Love. However, they weren’t the only band from L.A. who would soon call Elektra Records home.

By 1967, so would Clear Light, another group from the City Of Angels. They had only been together since early 1966. However, this didn’t stop Clear Light releasing a psychedelic classic on Elektra Records in 1967. This was their eponymous debut album Clear Light, which was recently rereleased by Big Beat Records, an imprint of Ace Records. Clear Light had come along way since early 1966.

That was when Los Angeles’ based Michael Ney advertised for a guitarist for a pickup band he was organising. One of the first people to answer the advert was Clyde Edgar “Robbie” Robinson, who was already a stalwart of the local music scene. 

In the early sixties, Robbie began performing as Robbie The Werewolf. He even released an album Live At The Whaleback in 1964. Then Robbie and his wife formed a duet, and sung in the local folk circuit. That was until Barbara Robison was asked to join the folk rock group The Ashes, who in 1966 became The Peanut Butter Conspiracy. With his wife now a member of a band, Robbie was looking for a new group. 

As he set off for the audition, Robbie wondered if Michael Ney’s new group was where his future lay? When he arrived at the audition, and introduced himself to Michael Ney, straight away, the two men got on. Everything it seemed was going well. That was until Robbie  failed the audition. At least Robbie came away having made a new friend, Michael Ney.

Just like Robbie, Michael Ney wasn’t a newcomer to music. For a while, he had been Tito Puente’s percussion. Then he played in a series of bands in Hollywood. However, recently he had been looking at forming a new band. He had been making these plans, whilst living alone in L.A.

When Robbie and Barbara Robison heard that Michael was living alone, they insisted that he move into their small, apartment on Manhattan Beach. There wasn’t much room for three adults and the Robison’s young child. However, everyone got on well, and soon, Robbie and Michael were making plans to form a new band.

This time, there were no adverts placed looking for musicians. Instead, Robbie and Michael went in search of the best musicians. The place to find them, was Hollywood and Sunset Strip clubs. So night after night, the two friends went in search of musicians for their new band. That was where Robbie and Michael would eventually meet two musicians from Phoenix, Arizona.

When Robbie and Michael began their search for band members, Bob Seal and Dallas Taylor were still playing in Phoenix. However, Dallas had played in L.A. before, but it had been a messy experience, literally.

Having answered an advert, drummer Dallas Taylor had travelled to L.A. for an audition. He landed the gig, and his new band were scheduled to open for The Mothers Of Invention. By then, Dallas had had an appendectomy. Rather than tell his new band mates, Dallas decided to play at the Shrine Auditorium. He played with such energy and enthusiasm, that his stitches burst. Dallas ended the gig with blood seeping through his burst stitches. Given the pain he was having to endure, Dallas wasn’t at his best, and was replaced as drummer. That’s how he ended up back in Phoenix. However, Dallas convinced Bob Seal to head to L.A.

Bob Seal and Dallas Taylor arrived in Los Angeles around September 1966, and straight away, began looking for fellow musical travellers. It was at a Peanut Butter Conspiracy concert, that Bob and Dallas began talking to the band’s bassist Alan Brackett. Eventually, Bob and Dallas asked Alan if he knew any musicians looking to form a band? Fortunately, Alan introduced them to Robbie.

When the three men began talking, Robbie explained that he and Michael were writing songs together, and explained what they were trying to achieve. It looked like Robbie and Michael had found the musicians they were looking for. There was a problem though.

Both Bob and Dallas were homeless. They had no idea where they were going to spend the night, after they finished talking to Robbie. So he invited them to stay at the small Manhattan Beach apartment. 

By then, the hippie era was in full swing, and communal living was becoming the norm. It certainly was at the Robison’s house. They were joined by Michael Ley, Bob Seal and Dallas Taylor. This allowed the band to write, practise and jam.

As the musicians jammed over a couple of days, Michael and Dallas quickly realised that two drummer were better than one. It gave the band a unique sound where power and fluidity reigned. Along with Bob Seal’s guitar, the as yet unnamed band’s sound was being honed. However, they still needed more musicians, and a name.

One thing the band need was a vocalist. Barbara Robison was everyone’s first choice. She declined; so Wanda Watkins a friend of the Peanut Butter Conspiracy was recruited. All that the group needed was a name.

This came about when one of the group passed road sign saying Garnerfield Sanitarium. At last, the group had a name. However, still the lineup wasn’t complete.

Despite this Garnerfield Sanitarium were playing weekend live at various clubs in Manhattan Beach. It was at one of these shows, that a young, aspiring songwriter approached them. He was Wolfgang Dios, who already was already signed to a publishing company. So impressed was Wolfgang Dios with Garnerfield Sanitarium, that he hooked them up with his publishing company.

The publishing company was owned by a former professional boxer and aspiring songwriter, Bud Mathias. He was formerly the Arizona Lightweight Champion between 1951 and 1954. Now he was a musical entrepreneur, who was involved in songwriting, recording and publishing. There was, it seemed, no end to Bud Mathias’ talents.

After his boxing career was over, Bud Mathias was looking four a new career. He decided to get involved in music. That’s despite no experience in the music industry. However, Bud Mathias wrote Runnin’ Wild which was recorded by Brenton Wood. Bud Mathias had also formed the publishing company Little Giant Music which published and administered Wolfgang Dios’ songs. When Bud Mathias met Garnerfield Sanitarium, he thought the band had potential.

There was a but though, Garnerfield Sanitarium needed a decent bassist. As luck should have it, the musical entrepreneur just happened to know a bassist, Doug Lubahn, a former ski instructor.

When Mamma Cass first met Doug Lubahn in Aspen, Colorado, he was a ski instructor during the day, and played in a  nightclub band at night. Mamma Cass thought Doug had potential, so encouraged him to move to L.A. 

Things hadn’t gone well for Doug, and for a while he was homeless. For a time, Doug slept on L.A.’s streets. However, by the time he joined Garnerfield Sanitarium, Doug’s luck was changing.

After meeting the band, Doug moved into the Robison’s Manhattan Beach apartment. By then, space was at a premium. This was the end for Barbara Robison. For some time the Robison’s marriage has been on shaky ground. She and her baby Scotty, moved into Peanut Butter Conspiracy’s house in Silver Lake. Meanwhile, Manhattan Beach apartment became Garnerfield Sanitarium’s headquarters.

By then, the new lineup of Garnerfield Sanitarium had realised that the band’s name wasn’t right. After some debate, it was thought the name was “too long” and “not cool enough.” It was then that Alan Brackett suggested Brain Drain. This however, wasn’t the only change. 

After a band meeting, it was announced that Wanda Watkins was no longer Brian Drain’s vocalist.However, before long, Wanda Watkins was back with a new band. Bud Mathias had recruited Wanda Watkins into Joint Effort. By then, Brain Drain had gone up in the world.

Brian Drain were now playing clubs around Hollywood. They were taking to the stage at Pandora’s Box, The Witch and The Hullabaloo. At these clubs, Brain Drain were a proving a popular draw. So it made sense for Brian Drain to record a couple of tracks.

For the recording session, two songs were chosen. The first was the Wolfgang Dios composition Black Roses. Me was penned by new bassist Doug Lubahn and Brain Drain’s manager Bud Mathias. One the two songs were recorded, Bud Mathias decided to swing by Elektra Records’ West Coast office with an acetate of Brain Drain’s new recording.

Bud Mathias had timed his run perfectly. The receptionist at Elektra Records was out having lunch, and had left the door unlocked. As Bud Mathias walked in, A&R man Billy Jones was about to head out for lunch. Bud Mathias managed to get Billy Jones to listen to the Brian Drain acetate. He liked the recording and agreed to send it to Jac Holman at Elektra Records’ headquarters.

Over the next couple of days, the members of Brian Drain waited for news from Elektra Records. When it came, it was good news. Jac Holman liked the recording, and wanted Brain Drain to sign to  Elektra Records.

In early January 1967, Brain Drain were about to sign to one of the major labels. It was then that Bud Mathias inexperience caught up with. He had never got Brian Drain to sign a management contract with him. Bud Mathias was a worried man.

He had every right to be. At Elektra Records, staff producer Paul Rothchild was talking with Brain Drain. He had just produced The Doors’ recently released debut album, and previously, had worked with Love. This gave Paul kudos in the eyes of Brain Drain. Paul Rothchild had a propositions for Brain Drain.

This was that Paul Rothchild become Brain Drain’s new manager. Paul pointed out that they needed someone with music industry experience managing Brain Drain. Given his track record with The Doors, and especially Love, Brain Drain soon agreed. Bud Mathias was history, and left ruing his inexperience. He had lost a band signed to a major label, by forgetting to get a management agreement signed. 

With Paul Rothchild managing Brain Drain, Elektra Records records rented an apartment for the band to live in. Their new home was situated in Franklin Avenue, and was once home to comedian W.C. Fields. Soon, it became known as the Light House.

The name came about, because in March 1967, Brain Drain had changed their name to Clear Light. The newly named band were also well on their way to transforming the faded grandeur of the Light into a rehearsal cum living space. Soon, Clear Light would be joined by The Doors, and the two Elektra Records’ bands would jam into the early hours, as they prepared to record new albums.

In The Doors’ case, they were preparing to record their sophomore album Strange Days. Their eponymous debut album had been released on January 4th 1967, and reached number two on the US Billboard 200. The Doors was well on its way to selling four million copies. Would lightning strike twice when Clear Light released their debut album?

Clear Light entered the studio with producer Paul Rothchild for the first time in the spring of 1967. The band recorded several songs, which they hoped would find their way onto their debut album. However, when producer Paul Rothchild listened to the recordings, he wasn’t happy with the results. 

The problem Paul Rothchild felt, was that the band needed a vocalist who could make his presence felt. All the successful bands had a distinctive vocalist. That was what producer Paul Rothchild felt Clear Light were lacking. Despite this, Clear Light were about to become movie stars.

Meanwhile, Clear Light were asked to feature in Theodore J. Flicker’s film The President’s Analyst. Clear Light would play themselves in a nightclub scene. However, when it came time for Clear Light to play She’s Ready To Be Free, vocalist Robbie was unwell. He was replaced by Barry McGuire. While his delivery was perfectly acceptable, it was no match for Robbie’s recent recording. 

After the filming of The President’s Analyst, Paul Rothchild began looking for a replacement vocalist. Eventually, Paul Rothchild found the vocalist he was looking for…Cliff De Young.

At first, Cliff De Young seemed to be in the wrong movie. While the rest of Clear Light looked like, and adopted the hippie lifestyle, Cliff De Young was preppy looking by comparison. It was an unlikely match, the aspiring actor, singer and songwriter. However, Cliff De Young possessed the distinctive vocal that Clear Light. Paul Rothchild realised this, and so did Robbie Robinson.

He didn’t make things difficult for the rest of Clear Light. Robbie resigned from Clear Light, and Cliff De Young replaced him. Now all Clear Light needed was a new guitarist.

Several guitarists were auditioned, including Doug Hastings of The Daily Flash. He had stood in for Neil Young in Buffalo Springfield. Despite his pedigree, Doug Hastings didn’t get the gig. Instead, Ralph Schuckett, who had played in various bands on Hollywood Strip and Topanga Canyon won the day. Soon, the new lineup of Clear Light were heading on a seventeen day residency in New York.

At their first gig in New York, new recruit Ralph Schuckett earned his Clear Light stripes. He wasn’t impressed by the crowd’s response and lack of enthusiasm. So he started chiding the audience, becoming more and more angry. By then, the venue manager was racing across the stage, and sacked Clear Light on the spot. His parting words were “you’ll never work in this town again.” How wrong he was.

The next day, Steve Paul phoned Clear Light and booked them to play at Scene East. It was a much more prestigious venue. By the time Clear Light took to the stage word of Ralph’s rant had spread like wildfire. Suddenly, everyone wanted to hear Clear Light. This resulted in Clear Light enjoying a longer stay in the Big Apple, and in the process, were able to hone their sound and songs. So when Clear Light returned to L.A. they were ready to finish recording their debut album.

For their eponymous debut album, the members of Clear Light had written nine new songs. They would later augment these songs with two cover versions. Clear Light penned Black Roses with Wolfgang Dios; and A Child’s Smile with Michael Ney. Doug Lubahn wrote Sand, Think Again and Night Sounds Loud. Bob Seal penned With All In Mind, They Who Have Nothing and How Many Days Have Passed. Clear Light’s new vocalist Cliff De Young cowrote The Ballad Of Freddie and Larry with keyboardist Ralph Schuckett. These nine songs would be recorded at one of the Hollywood’s top studios.

Before recording of Clear Light began at Sunset Sound Recorders, the newly named band had made their L.A. live debut. This took place at L.A.’s first love-in on Easter Sunday. Clear Light quickly won over what was an appreciative audience. Buoyed by the success of their live debut, Clear Light were ready to record their eponymous debut album.

When Clear Light arrived at Sunset Sound Recorders, they were met by their manager and producer Paul Rothchild. He was now one of the hottest producers in America, having just finished producing The Doors’ Strange Days. Joining Paul Rothchild in the studio was Elektra Records cofounder Jac Holman. He was the recording and production supervisor. As Paul Rothchild and Jac Holman watched on, Clear Light prepared to record their eponymous debut album.

By then, Clear Light’s lineup included a rhythm section of bassist Doug Lubahn, guitarist Bob Seal and drummers Dallas Taylor and Michael Ney who added percussion. They were joined by Ralph Schuckett, who switched between organ, piano and celesta. Cliff De Young add vocals on nine tracks, while Bob Seal takes charge of vocals on Black Roses and his composition All In Mind. With Paul Rothchild producing Clear Light, surely the album would soon be recorded?

With the addition of keyboardist Ralph Schuckett and new vocalist Cliff De Young, Clear Light could concentrate on completing their debut album. However, producer Paul Rothchild  decided that songs recorded before Ralph Schuckett and Cliff De Young joined Clear Light, should be rerecorded. This meant the sessions would take longer. There was no other option though. Paul Rothchild saw the early versions as just work in progress. They just weren’t good enough to make the album. This was disappointing for Clear Light. However, the extra work was worthwhile.

When the songs were rerecorded, and keyboards and new vocals added, some of the songs took on new life and meaning. It was a total rransformation, and much more representative of the new Clear Light. Gradually, Paul Rothchild was moulding Clear Light, and began to steer them in a new direction.

With nine songs recorded, Paul Rothchild decided that to complete the album, Clear Light should record to songs by members of Elektra Records’ family. The songs he had chosen were Greg Copeland and Steve Noonan’s Street Singer and Tom Paxton’s Mr. Blue. These two songs Paul Rothchild felt, would be ideal for Cliff De Young’s “Hamlet on acid delivery.” This would prove true. However, by then, Clear Light were beginning to resent Paul Rothchild.

Members of Clear Light felt that their manager and producer was becoming too controlling. He was also a perfectionist, which was no bad thing. However, the band tired of Paul Rothchild’s constant changing things. It was as if he was on a search for sonic perfection. Given the success Paul Rothchild had enjoyed with Love, The Doors and The Paul Butterfield Band, most bands would’ve been willing to listen and learn. Not Clear Light. They rebelled.

Eventually, something snapped in Clear Light and they began to rebel. They felt Paul Rothchild was too controlling of the band. This may have worked with other bands, including Love, The Doors and The Paul Butterfield Band. However, the members of Clear Light had a rebellious streak, and didn’t take kindly to being constantly told what to do. This wasn’t the only thing the drove a wedge between Clear Light and Paul Rothchild.

By then, guitarist Bob Seals the oldest member of Clear Light was questioning the wisdom of having their producer as a manager. When he spoke out, Bob Seals claims he was singled out for criticism by Paul Rothchild. He remembers doing an guitar overdub on a song he had written. Meanwhile, Neil Young and some big name musicians were watching in the control room. By then, Bob Seals was wound up like a spring. When he stumbled over the guitar part, he claims Paul Rothchild said through the intercom: “you know, there are ten thousand guitar players in this town that can do this track if you can’t.” For Bob Seals this was a crushing blow. It was just as well that the album was almost completed.

When Clear Light was completed, the relationship between Clear Light and Paul Rothchild had sunk to a new low. Elektra Records had scheduled the release of Clear Light for October 1967. However, there was another problem.

Elektra Records had hired William S. Harvey to shoot the album cover. By then, Robbie Robinson was still a member of Clear Light. However, Elektra Records got round this by describing the former founder member as the band’s guru. Robbie wasn’t on the photos in the inner sleeve. They feature the new lineup of Clear Spot. So do the instructions “in order to appreciate the spectacular double drumming of Clear Light, play at high volume.”

Whether critics followed these instruction isn’t known. What’s known, is that the reviews of Clear Light were positive. The music veered between folk rock to heavy psychedelia. Bob Seal who provided the folk rock compositions,  would turn out to be Clear Light’s secret weapon.

Bob Seal takes charge of the lead vocal on Black Roses and With All In Mind. He shows that he has hidden depth. While Bob Seal lays down driving, choppy and blistering guitar licks on Black Roses, he shows that he’s also a talented vocalist. If Clear Light had looked closer to home, they would’ve solved their vocalist problem. With All In Mind is another showcase for Bob’s vocal talents, on what’s another slice of folk rock, with a hint of psychedelia. How Many Days Have Passed is a veritable fusion of folk rock and psychedelia. There’s even a nod to The Doors courtesy of producer Paul Rothchild.

The three tracks bassist Doug Lubahn contributed, see Clear Light disappear further down the psychedelic rabbit hole. Sand, Think Again and Night Sounds Loud are prime cuts of heavy psychedelia. Lysergic, trippy and acidic they’re a reminder of the golden age of psychedelia. Of this trio of tracks, Think Again with its swirling organ and searing guitars is the standout. Not only does it showcase Doug Lubahn’s skill as a songwriter, but Paul Rothchild’s production skills.

Paul Rothchild’s decision to encourage Clear Light to record Street Singer and Tom Paxton’s Mr. Blue was vindicated when the album was released. Cliff De Young vocal on Street Singer was dramatic and lysergic. “Hamlet on acid delivery” was the perfect decryption of Cliff’s vocal on Mr. Blue. Dark, dramatic, theatrical and menacing described the vocal. It was one of Cliff’s finest vocals. Coming a close second was his almost manic, unhinged delivery of The Ballad Of Freddie and Larry. Cliff it seems is taking a trip, as Clear Light waltz their way through the song.

Another of the standout tracks on Clear Light was A Child’s Smile. It was penned by the band with Michael Ley. It’s folk rock ballad, that hints at psychedelic. There’s a darkness to the lyrics about childhood imagination. Accompanying Cliff’s vocal is Van Dyke Parks on harpsichord. It was an inspired decision by Paul Rothchild to add a harpsichord to the track. It’s the perfect contrast the vocal and the dark, disturbing lyrics. Sadly, Paul Rothchild never recorded another album with Clear Light.

Following the release of Clear Light, the band embarked on a second tour of the East Coast in December 1967. Clear Light had just released Black Roses as a single, with She’s Ready To Be Free on the flip side. It’s one of eight bonus tracks on Big Beat Records’ reissue of Clear Light. 

The recent reissue of Clear Light features the album in its entirely, and then the eight bonus tracks. This includes Bye Bye Boogie Man, the versions of She’s Ready To Be Free, Dawn Lights The Way, The Susan Years and Eastern Valleys. There’s also the versions of Me and Black Roses recorded by Brain Drain. Quite simply Clear Light is the most comprehensive overview of Clear Light’s short career.

As Clear Light embarked upon their second tour of the East Coast, they were invited onto the Pat Boone In Hollywood to play Black Roses. Despite Clear Light’s star seemingly in the ascendancy, Doug Lubahn had turned down an invitation to join the band on a permanent basis. Instead, he was happy to divide his time between The Doors and Clear Light. That proved to be a wise decision.

When Clear Light arrived in New York, they started auditioning new guitarists. Bob Seal was about to be replaced. His bandmates had stabbed him in the back. They wanted someone less outspoken, someone who would toe the party line. Eventually, Danny “Kootch” Kortchmar won the day.A heartbroken Bob Seal left, and headed to Sausalito, where he began a new life as a bassist. However, Bob Seal had the last laugh.

The new guitarist needed time to learn the band’s songs. So some of the members of Clear Light picked up some session work. By the end of February 1968, the latest lineup of Clear Light opened for Jefferson Airplane. Meanwhile, Night Sounds Loud became Clear Light’s third single in Britain. Things seemed to be going well for Clear Light.

They even got as far as beginning work on their sophomore album. However, the loss of Bob Seal had hit Clear Light hard. They were no longer the same band. Cliff De Young realised this, and left the band in June 1969. This was perfect timing, as the rest of Clear Light had been looking for a new vocalist. 

Dave Palmer who went on to join Steely Dan was first choice. When this didn’t work out, Duane Allman was approached, and talks took place. However, nothing came of it, and by September 1968, Clear Light split-up.

Looking back, the Clear Light story is one of what might have been. If Clear Light had continued to work with Paul Rothchild, what heights might they have reached? Would Clear Light have followed in the footsteps of their label mates and jamming partners The Doors? After all Paul Rothchild,had an enviable track record.

Paul Rothchild produced everyone from Tim Buckley to Love, The Doors, Janis Joplin, Fred Neil and The Paul Butterfield Blues Band. Part of his recipe for success was he was a perfectionist, who was constantly looking to improve the slightest detail. This worked and got results with many bands. However, Clear Light felt stifled, and rebelled.

This was a great shame. Clear Light were a talented band, who could’ve should’ve reached greater heights. However, by the end of the recording of Clear Light, their partnership with Paul Rothchild was all but over. Over the next eleven months, Clear Light seemed to implode. Guitarist Bob Seal, who had played an important part in the sound and success of Clear Light was betrayed, when his band mates started auditioning for a new guitarist. This backfired, and Clear Light were never the same tight unit. Their answer was to replace vocalist Cliff De Young. However, he beat them to it, and left Clear Spot. By then, the game was up for Clear Spot, and by September 1968 the band called time on their career. 

Forty-eight years later, and Big Beat Records’ reissue of Clear Light showcases a talented and versatile band that could’ve and should’ve reached greater heights. Clear Light were certainly not lacking in talent. Sadly, just over two years after Michael Ney first met Robbie Robinson, the adventure was over. A lot had happened since then. 

The lineup changed several times. So had the name. Managers had come and gone, and Clear Light had recorded a stonewall psychedelic classic. Sadly, Clear Light is one of music’s best kept secrets, and is only appreciated by a discerning few musical connoisseurs, who have discovered this psychedelic classic. Maybe Big Beat Records expanded reissue of Clear Light, will bring this classic album to the attention of a wider audience?














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